Intended for students interested in taking human anatomy, Covers
the basics of human anatomy and physiology including anatomical
terminology, basic biochemistry, cells and tissues, and the
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine,
cardiovascular, lymphatic/immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary,
and reproductive systems. Introduces common human disease processes.
Prepares non-science majors and allied-health profession students to
take advanced anatomy and physiology courses
Key Features :
Gross anatomy is subdivided into surface anatomy (the external body), regional anatomy (specific regions of the body), and systemic anatomy (specific organ systems).
Microscopic anatomy is subdivided into cytology (the study of cells) and histology (the study of tissues).
Anatomy is closely related to physiology (study of function), biochemistry (chemical processes of living things), comparative anatomy (similarities and differences between species), and embryology (development of embryos).
Knowledge of anatomy is needed to understand human biology and medicine.
anatomy: The study of the body structure of animals.
surface Anatomy: The study of anatomical landmarks that can be identified by observing the surface of the body. Sometimes called superficial anatomy.
microscopic anatomy: The study of minute anatomical structures on a microscopic scale, including cells (cytology) and tissues (histology).
Gross (or macroscopic) anatomy: The study of anatomical features visible to the naked eye, such as internal organs and external features.
embryology: The science of the development of an embryo from the fertilization of the ovum to the fetal stage.
dissection: The process of disassembling an organism to determine its internal structure and understand the functions and relationships of its components.
Area of Study :
Anatomy describes the structure and location of the different components of
an organism to provide a framework for understanding. Human anatomy
studies the way that every part of a human, from molecules to bones,
interacts to form a functional whole.
Additional Information :
There are two major types of anatomy. Gross (macroscopic) anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye, such as the external and internal bodily organs. Microscopic anatomy is the study of tiny anatomical structures such as tissues and cells.
Gross anatomy can be further subdivided into three different fields:
Surface anatomy (or superficial anatomy) is the study of external anatomical features without dissection.
Regional anatomy focuses on specific external and internal regions of the body (such as the head or chest) and how different systems work together in that region.
Systemic anatomy focuses on the anatomy of different organ systems, such as the respiratory or nervous system.
Regional anatomy is widely used in modern teaching because it is easier to apply to a clinical setting than systemic anatomy. The major anatomy textbook, Gray’s Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format to reflect this preference. Surface anatomy is also widely used to gauge the position and structure of deeper organs, tissues, and systems.
Within microscopic anatomy, two topics of study are of great importance:
Cytology, the study of the structure and function of cells
Histology, the study of the organization and details of biological tissues
The human body has many layers of organization. Biological systems consist of organs that consist of tissues, and tissue in turn is made up of cells and connective tissue. Microscopic anatomy allows one to focus on these tissues and cells.
History of Anatomy
The history of anatomy has been an evolving understanding of organs and structures in the body. Beginning in Ancient Greece and developing through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, methods of studying anatomy have advanced dramatically. This field has moved from examination of animals and cadavers through invasive dissection to the technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century, such as non-invasive imaging and radiology.
Generally, medical and biology students learn about the human body from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures, and tutorials. Medical and dental students also learn through the dissection and inspection of cadavers. A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required for all medical professionals, especially surgeons and doctors working in diagnostic specialties such as radiology.